Weekly musings, 1/21/18: strength makes ease

Weekly musings, 1/21/18: strength makes ease
I was working with a client recently who used to have a really hard time relaxing into the floor. When she would lie down on her back, her mid back would arch up, creating space between her ribs and the ground.

I brought awareness to it, like I do. We worked on breathing, and she began to understand how her exhale could change her rib position. She learned to feel where her ribs were during positions like hands and knees, and she figured out that if she wanted her abs to support her, rib position mattered.

She brought the same awareness to standing strength based exercises. I would occasionally let go of major alignment cues, allowing her instead to simply work on the basic coordination and motor control needed to do things like squat, row, press. I would mention her ribs periodically, but I also let her do the movement- if her ribs flared after my initial cue in the beginning, that was okay. In order to build basic strength, sometimes the alignment is a little bit off while the body and the brain figure out how to do the movement. At the beginning of the next set, I would re-cue the ribs and almost always things would look a little bit better than they had the first time around.

Gradually, the client became stronger. As she became stronger, her ribs lifted less and less away from the floor when she lied down. She looked at me last week and said, “my ribs just go down now. I don’t have to think about and it feels so much better on my mid-back.”

Building strength in different positions take patience and consistency. It’s okay if things look a little bit awkward at first as long as you occasionally bring awareness to how you want to be supported. I was once told, “you grow into the position in which you spend the most time.” If you consistently train with your ribs lifted up and out, that’s where they will remain when you sit, lie down, or even come on to your stomach. Establishing the strength to keep the ribs relaxed and down is not necessarily better, but it is different and requires a different way of holding yourself. Play with your alignment occasionally and see if holding yourself differently offers you more or less support in positions that require strength. The most supported place of strength will also give you the most ease.

Weekly musings, 1/14/17: Simplicity

Weekly musings, 1/14/17: Simplicity
Recently, I was visiting the esthetician I see once every couple of months for skincare stuff. She was peering at my face under a magnifying glass, like estheticians do, when she peeled her eyes away from my skin to look at me. “Your skin looks amazing. What are you doing?”

“I am using olive oil, in the morning and evening,” I replied.

“Olive oil? Wow. Well, it’s working.”

What’s fascinating about this isn’t the fact that olive oil is making my skin look great (though that is a nice little by-product). I have spent thousands of dollars on expensive skin care creams over the course of my life, looking for the perfect one to hydrate and replenish (because women care about these sorts of things), and the thing that has been most effective is the one I read about in a fashion magazine twenty years ago and a bottle will probably last me a year. 

For some reason, when it comes to health and wellness, there is this idea that expensive and complicated must be better than simple and minimal. Clients are frequently amazed at my ability to design a challenging workout using a washcloth, 2x4, and their own body weight. Though I utilize external load almost every workout, once in a while it’s nice just to return to the most basic patterns. 

Additionally, the basic patterns can be cued using muscular tension to provide support. A movement such as hands and knees can be done in a way that feels like nothing is really happening, or it can feel extremely challenging. “How can this simple little movement work so well?” clients often ask. 

The answer, maybe, is that like the olive oil, simple is better. It doesn’t have to be complicated to be effective, so if you are struggling with something, take several steps back and work on the most basic patterns. You may be pleasantly surprised.

Weekly musings, 1/7/17: cells, life, and movement

In the book, “The Big Picture,” Sean Carroll discusses three features that are ubiquitous to our concept of life: compartmentalization, metabolism, and replication with variation. Compartmentalization, he writes, is actually part of a more general concept called self-organization.

When Mr. Carroll discusses life, he is looking at it from a cellular level, but these three ideas could easily be translated to the foundations of healthy movement. Compartmentalization and self organization are how the body organizes itself to move effectively and efficiently for the task at hand. When joints work both independently and interdependently, forces tend to be dispersed more fluidly up the skeleton.

Metabolism is required for movement (and life) to take place. A person that moves little is not using as much energy as one who moves often. The ability to use energy means the system is alive, so movement is a way to maintain life.

Replication with variation is a lot like repetition with variation. Repetition with variation is how we learn, and in movement, is a way to define play. It maximizes options, improves self organization, and requires energy. By moving in similar, but different, ways regularly, we maximize long term success for moving efficiently and effectively.

Maintaining health and vibrancy throughout an individual’s life is multi-faceted, but it is clear movement is a large part of the equation.

Weekly musings, 12/31/17: Reflections and accomplishments

Weekly musings, 12/31/17: Reflections and accomplishments
As 2017 winds down, it’s easy to get caught up in what you want to change for 2018. But what about what simply reflecting on what you accomplished the last year?

Every December, towards the end of the month, I comb my business account and put together my expenses, profits, and losses for my accountant. I used to dread doing it because it takes time and money can be a little anxiety provoking for me. But I have found the ritual of looking at my statements and reflecting, month by month, on what happened financially over the course of the year actually gives me perspective on what I did well and what can be improved for the next year. Since money is, for better or for worse, tied to things like learning, traveling, and trying new things (at least from a business perspective), it also gives me an opportunity to assess whether I made good decisions. Money well spent, at least in my world, leads to enrichment in some way. If I learned something that I can apply to my life or my work, I made a good decision; if not, I should probably avoid repeating the same mistake in the future.

I am not suggesting everyone undertake the tedium that is bookkeeping to reflect upon their year. However, I do think having a written account of some variable in your life, whether it’s your mood, how you felt during your workouts, or how many minutes you devoted to a breathing practice can help with an honest reflection of time that has past. We all know that strength and mobility require consistency; whether your consistent program is working requires honest self assessment; a written log of some sort can help keep you reflect on a deeper, less biased level.

Cheers to a happy, healthy 2018!

Weekly musings, 12/24/17: curiosity

Weekly musings, 12/24/17: Curiosity
In the movie “Elf,” Will Ferrell plays Buddy, a human adopted by Papa Elf when he is a baby. At some point, Buddy realizes he isn’t actually an Elf and sets out on a journey to find his real father in the far away land of Manhatten.

Apart from his slightly manic state (which is probably the result of the sheer amount of sugar he consumes), and surprisingly good skin despite the lack of vegetables in his diet, the most interesting thing about Buddy is his curiosity about his new environment. He is constantly in motion, searching for ways to play and be useful. He explores the world like a child, jumping on the lines across the crosswalk instead of walking, running round and around through turnstile doors until they make him sick, and running instead of walking whenever he has somewhere to be. 

While many of Buddy’s behaviors are a little suspect (maple syrup on spaghetti?), his natural curiosity with regards to movement is something we could all embrace. What if you looked at the world with slightly more wonder? Would you see the curb as an opportunity to balance heel to toe? Or would you hop from stepping stone to stepping stone? Finding joy in things we otherwise find routine makes the world interesting and might even make us feel younger, longer.

Wishing everyone a very Merry Christmas!

Weekly musings, 12/16/17: on pain

Weekly musings, 12/16/17: on pain
A client I see once every six or eight weeks came in recently. She originally began seeing me for chronic pain issues that had persisted for years. She was active, did what she could, and had been through several rounds of physical therapy. Though the physical therapy had helped, she wanted to transcend her pain and view her body as strong, rather than fragile. She was also hypermobile.

I mention this, not because hyper mobility in any way a guarantees pain, but because I feel like hyper mobility and pain are largely misunderstood in the exercise and post rehabilitation community. People with hyper mobility tend to be hyper aware, acutely in tune with what they are experiencing in their bodies. Teaching these individuals how to feel the sensation of work and how to feel like their joints are supported by muscles in a variety of positions is critical to improving their confidence in their bodies and what they can do. 

There is also something about helping these individuals tap into their breath and its relationship to movement in the middle back and ribs. The ability to feel movement in these areas is centering, for lack of a better word. And to feel centered is to feel connected.

When I asked her how she was feeling on our most recent visit, she looked at me and said, “I have spent thousands of dollars over the last twenty years trying to find a way to get out of pain. I am so grateful to you. This has worked. I feel stronger and more confident in my body’s abilities than I have in my adult life.”

I frequently tell clients I don’t do anything. I don’t touch people. I don’t prescribe thousands of exercises. I give people the tools to feel themselves and their bodies in space. I empower people to feel work in a variety of positions and trust that their body will not let them down, because it is strong and capable. I teach people different ways to breathe, because the breath is powerful. You are not broken. You do not have to live in pain. Find a practitioner that listens and is willing to think outside the box, particularly if you struggle with hyper mobility or any other condition that is poorly understood. Autonomy is powerful- find a practitioner that encourages it and help you find it.

Weekly musings, 12/10/17: Aging and play

Weekly musings, 12/10/17: Aging and play
My almost 12 year old pomapoo is losing his eye sight. He stumbles into things once in a while, and he’s scared walking at night unless he’s near my feet. He’s never liked loud noises, but now that hearing is a sense he relies on more fully, he stops when he deems a loud noise threatening and turns around, facing the other direction.

Other than these behaviors, he’s still active, and he still plays with his toys, chasing balls he can’t always find. An outsider looking in wouldn’t know anything was wrong, because he looks fine.

I have learned to adjust my expectations when we walk, patiently shining the light and going slowly down curbs. I pick him up when we cross busy intersections, because otherwise he might sit down in the middle of the road, overwhelmed by the noise. 

I train people of all ages. Everyone is capable of learning, and everyone is capable of gaining strength and mobility, regardless of age and circumstance. As people get older, they may move a touch slower or have to think about things a little bit longer before they “get” what you are asking, but they still enjoy being challenged in a thoughtful way. Dribbling a ball, tossing washcloths (one of my favorite games to play with clients), and utilizing hand eye coordination in a way that feels athletic ignites a playfulness in people that transcends age.

Winter the pomapoo reminds me daily that empathy is important, but so is encouraging playfulness. We are only as old as we feel. The people around us and the activities we partake in influence our beliefs about ourselves, so surround yourself with people that believe in keeping a sense of humor and a sense of play as you navigate the adventure that is life.

Weekly musings, 12/3/17: reframing fitness

A recent study published in Science Advances analyzed loading patterns in the upper arm bones of women throughout history.* Interestingly, women living during the Neolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age had upper limb bones that were comparable to semi-elite rowers, suggesting women regularly participated in rigorous manual labor that far exceeds what women do today.

The Neolithic Age is also known as the New Stone Age. During this time, tools were used that eventually gave way to farming, and animals were domesticated for food. It enabled people to settle in one area, rather than live nomadically. One can only imagine the jobs that needed to be done during this for success were low to moderate intensity, involving similar movements done a variety of ways. Women were likely lifting, reaching, pulling, and pushing using both sides of their bodies to build, farm, and create a sustainable environment.

At a workshop I took recently, the speaker said we as humans don’t do enough low level activity. We “exercise,” which means we get our heart rate up as high as possible and maximize caloric or strength output, and then we sit. We don’t build fences, pick berries, or walk. We have adopted an all or nothing attitude, with nothing in between. 

But what if we were designed to move mostly at low to moderate intensities, throwing in high intensity work once in a while? And what if we adopted this attitude a little bit more? Would we feel better, have more range of motion and strong bones?

It’s not always about how fast, how strong, how much. Our general health and well-being would thrive on moving at lower levels in a variety of ways, daily. Maybe if we change our mindset around what fitness actually is, more people would feel less intimidated and encouraged to move just a little bit more, every day. 


Weekly musings, 11/25/17: designed to move

I watched a TED talk recently by a neuroscientist who convincingly argued that we evolved not to think logically or critically reason, but to control movement.* In fact, researchers believe the endocrinological response to exercise that makes us feel good was an evolutionary reward for us to keep moving.**

We are physiologically primed for exercise, specifically aerobic exercise. It makes everything work a little bit better, it clears our head, and it’s often linked to things like increased creativity. Yet, people put it on the back burner because it takes too long, or it doesn’t provide a magical solution for weight loss. 

The good news is it doesn’t take a ton of time for walking (or some other form of aerobic activity), to be impactful. Just twenty minutes of walking at a brisk pace most days of the week will make you feel better. And when you feel better and have more energy, you begin to do a little bit more. If you are feeling really adventurous, walk on terrain that isn’t level or even to stimulate the mechanoreceptors in your feet and ankles that are there to react to the ground. Use the body you have in the way it was designed to be used just by moving a little bit more. Your health and well being will thank you.


Weekly musings, 11/18/17: the power of tricks

I was working with a client recently, trying to come up with ways to get her to look out when she walks, rather than down. While her balance has improved significantly, she has double vision, which affects how steady she feels. When she is working with me, I encourage her to look out, since she knows the floor is free from obstacles. However, her habit remains to look down, just to make sure nothing gets in her way.

This week, rather than continue giving her the same cue, I handed her a ball and instructed her to toss it in the air and catch while she walked across the room. Her gaze immediately lifted and her overall steadiness improved as she focused on catching and tossing the ball.

Internal awareness is important. It allows us to feel our body and get in touch with our habits. Awareness, I like to say, is the first step to change.

However, the world is external. At some point, our awareness needs to move outside of ourselves so we can interact with the environment. The ability to look out rather than down while walking not only improves posture and balance, it let’s us take in our surroundings and actually see the world around us. 

Asking people to perform tasks like throwing a ball forces them to use their bodies reflexively. They stop worrying about how they are doing something and instead work on what they are doing. Interestingly, often these types of activities also make more present, due to the fact their attention is focused. 

If someone is struggling with embodiment, try moving their awareness externally. It may improve their internal awareness more than you expect.

Weekly musings, 11/12: Floor strength

Weekly musings, 11/12: Floor strength
A 72 year old client came in recently. She began working with me when she was in her late fifties. We basically grew together, with her getting stronger as the years went on and me gaining the necessary knowledge to help her meet her goals and move well into her later years.

We were chatting about push-ups, a staple of her home program, when she said, “I really like doing the push-ups, but it’s getting harder and harder to get up and down from the floor.” 

Getting up and down from the floor is an action we take for granted when we were are younger. The strength and flexibility needed to interact with the ground is readily available to most of us throughout our thirties and into our forties. However, like with all things, if it isn’t practiced regularly, it becomes more challenging. Frequently what happens is people begin to lose the strength required go from the ground to upright because they don’t use those ranges of motion very often; if you add in constraints, such as not using the hands, a task that was challenging but doable becomes nearly impossible.

The problem for this particular client wasn’t lack of strength or flexibility; she just didn’t know how to do it in an easy way.  After cueing her to reach forward as she was standing up from a half kneeling position and watching her fly up, I quickly realized we don’t work on floor transitions and she simply hadn’t given them much thought in the last decade.

We played with a couple of seated rolling variations, discussed hand position, and voila! She was getting up without using her hand on her knee or experiencing any sense of effort. When it isn’t a strength issue, it’s usually an “I don’t fully understand my options” issue. Strength is necessary; so is being able to move easily, without effort. We need both to perform everyday activities well.

Weekly musings, 11/05: Active Flexibility

Weekly musings, 11/05: Active Flexibility
I am often amazed at what clients accomplish by repeated exposure to an initially challenging movement.

Impressive improvements in flexibility are made through moving in and out of ranges that originally seem inaccessible. The great thing about training positions that could potentially be uncomfortable in this way is it reduces the perception of threat. The nervous system, instead of tightening up (because that’s what we do when things get uncomfortable), learns to relax and embrace new patterns, gradually allowing the individual to move further and further through the active range of motion. 

This is the basic premise behind several techniques, including nerve flossing and Feldenkrais. Move towards something and retreat away, only to find you move a little closer the next time. As confidence grows, so too does the ability to move freely.

I have watched clients increase the ability to move their arms, sit back on their heels, and turn their heads. They learn to reach behind themselves, get their heels on the floor in downdog, and move their spines, all without forcing themselves into uncomfortable positions. Eventually, they learn to hold their new positions, building strength in a place they couldn’t previously go. 

I don’t believe getting stronger and more flexible always needs to be miserable to be effective. It’s not a matter of avoiding the sense of work- after all, learning to feel contraction in the muscles increases body awareness and creates a sense of strength, both of which are good things. It’s just when you are initially learning how to do something or exposing your body to a place it’s never gone before, give yourself permission to not have to stay in a place that is initially uncomfortable. Moving in and out of new positions can eventually lead to the ability to access an entirely different way of being. 
*There was a great article in the New York Times about Feldenkrais that can be found here: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/30/well/trying-the-feldenkrais-method-for-chronic-pain.html

Weekly musings, 10/29/17: basic strength

Weekly musings, 10/29/17: basic strength
I was chatting with someone recently with a background in dance and yoga. She is a beautiful mover. She drops into the splits easily, can fold forward and place her head on her knees, and moves into poses like pigeon and camel with a sense of ease and grace.

Yet she has low back pain. She also lacks basic, integrated strength, despite being lean and muscular from years of manipulating her body into shapes.

The experience that comes from working with people of all different shapes and backgrounds has taught me there exists a Yin and a Yang when it comes to moving well without pain. The ability to breathe easily and move fluidly, without tensing or bracing is extremely powerful. It leads to mobility and a sense of embodiment.

However, basic strength, the kind that comes from moving an external load or pulling your body up to a bar, creates a coordination and sense of cohesiveness that just practicing softer forms of movement can’t really achieve. Creating total body tension and feeling your muscles work together allows stability from which ease can flow. 

If you strongly dislike strength training, once a week, commit to one set of push-ups, one set of bodyweight squats or a wall sit, one set of hanging from a bar, and one set of bridging, focusing on using your heels to press up so you feel the posterior leg muscles. Don’t make it complicated, and think of it as an experiment to see if it makes the other activities in your life feel a little bit better. Do it for 8 weeks. If, at the end of the eight weeks, you feel stronger, consider adding a set or progressing one of the exercises, doing single leg squats instead of double weight squats, perhaps. Be consistent, and think of basic strength as a fundamental aspect to moving well. 

Weekly musings, 10/21/17: Physical activity and dementia

When I was a a very new, very inexperienced personal trainer, fresh out of college, one of my first clients was a man named Joe. Joe was kind, personable, and in his late 70s. He arrived for our sessions more or less on time and was always clean and well kept.

Our first six months together, occasionally Joe would seem a little forgetful, but I didn’t think much of it. He was, after all, older, and forgetfulness happens. 

As time wore on, the forgetfulness turned into something else, something involving the cessation of driving, a care giver, and a vacancy in his eyes that began to exist more often than it didn’t.

During that time, I was forced to evaluate my communication skills. I had to be clear, concise, and I needed to offer easy instructions that required little interpretation. “Face the warning sign,” I would say, when I wanted him to face the equipment. “Turn and face the ocean,” I would say, when I wanted him to move in a different direction.

I learned that if he thought it was Christmas time and the hanging pot near the clock was a wreath then by golly, it was a wreath. Who cared that it was July. I would carry on conversations with him about the holidays of his past, listening as he spoke of his time on the east coast with his family. When he told me he had to leave early so he could be the best man in his best friend’s wedding, I learned about his friend from Yale, the one who bunked with him all four years.

Alzheimer’s and dementia are devastating diseases. While physical activity, specifically aerobic exercise, may play role in preserving cognitive function,* exercise does not appear to slow the onset once it manifests.**

One of our last sessions together, Joe, who hadn’t recognized me in months, looked at me and said, “are you going home to Napa this Christmas?” I was shocked he remembered anything about my family. “Yes,” I responded. “It’s lovely there this time of year.”

And just like that he was gone, singing old songs and staring out into the water. He died a month later.

There are so many types of exercise, it’s easy to get bogged down with what’s right or wrong, but don’t undervalue the benefits of a 30 minute walk, every day. It’s not only good for your body, it may very well be good for your mind. 


Newsletter, November 2018: Keep moving


I just got back from listening to orthopedic surgeon Dr. Vonda Wright speak to a room full of educated, affluent women (and me. I was there as a guest). She researches the effects of what she calls mobility on aging. Based on her talk, she was using mobility in a somewhat generic way to simply mean movement. 

The numbers are staggering. A sedentary lifestyle will cause 2.5 million Americans to suffer from premature disability or death in the next ten years. Sedentary people decline twice as fast as people that are active. 67% of baby boomers report weekly muscle or joint pain.

There was more, but you get the picture. The thing that struck me while I was listening was while a large portion of the US continues to struggle with meeting the minimum suggested requirements of physical activity (20 minutes of moderate physical activity, most days of the week), the fitness/movement/yoga/strength training/Pilates/aqua aerobics community is busy squabbling over a) who has the best method or system to maintain fitness and flexibility over time and b) how “other” forms of fitness are inferior. People are dying from inactivity and the professionals who chose careers to inspire people are making it difficult for people to feel good about their choices. 

It’s been said the best exercise is the one you will do. It doesn’t matter what it is. Just move. Because if you move a little bit, chances are high you will start to feel a little bit better and you will want to move a little bit more. And if you find you enjoy a specific modality, great! But don’t build a wall around yourself that prevents you from trying other physically activity things. Variety, after all, is the spice of life, and it’s a little bit freeing to think there is no perfect exercise. They are all good. 

This same philosophy can be applied to learning. I am perplexed when people in the movement industry decide to only learn one system or methodology. It’s great to have a sense of mastery, but so much can be learned from listening to other masters explain a similar movement in a different way, or approach a movement from a completely different perspective. No one system has all of the answers and no one form of movement is better than the others. Study the method that resonates with you, but step outside your comfort zone once in a while with an open mind. And keep moving. 

Yours in health and wellness,

Upcoming events: 
Foundation training continues on Thursdays, level I from 4-4:50; level II from 5-5:50. Contact Mia Hurst at miahust@sbcglobal.net.

All levels Vinyasa class Wednesdays, from 6-7 with Andrea Woodhall. For more information, please contact Andrea at woodhall.wellness@gmail.com

Mobility Training: understanding mobility practices, Saturday, October 28 from 9-12.
Join Jenn Pilotti for this three hour workshop on mobility training. Why: Mobility should be trained progressively and systematically. In order to fully understand how to improve mobility, individuals needs to be able to sense the area they want to move and then consciously move the area. Once people can do these two things, basic principles can be applied to improve strength, control, and mobility at certain joints. This workshop aims to clarify these concepts. It is appropriate for personal trainers, movement professionals, yoga teachers, and individuals that are looking to deepen their understanding of how mobility works and why it should be trained in a thoughtful way.

We will discuss concepts specific to mobility, and will apply these concepts to the spine and lower extremity. Programming will also be discussed. To maintain quality instruction, a maximum of 10 spots are available.

Cost: $60
More information or to register: http://www.bewellpt.com/events/2017/10/28/mobility-training-a-3-hour-workshop-on-understanding-mobility-practices

Jules Mitchell workshop series, Saturday, December 3
Join Jules Mitchell, M.S., at Be Well Personal Training for Applied Asana: A Scientific Approach to Stretching in Yoga from 9:30-12:30 and Hip Dynamics from 2-5. Cost: $60 until November 10, $75 after per session or $95/$125 for both.

Jules Mitchell MS, CMT, RYT is a Los Angeles based yoga teacher, manual therapist and educator. She combines the tradition of yoga with her background in biomechanics to create yoga programs designed to help people move better and achieve individually defined physical success. Her approach to asana is multi-modal and skill based, balancing the somatic (moving from within) aspects of yoga with exercise science principles to achieve movement goals – from simply aging well to sport specific outcomes.

Registration: http://www.bewellpt.com/events/2017/5/7/jules-mitchell-workshop-series-saturday-december-2

Recommended reading:
I am almost finished with “The Gene,” by Siddhartha Murkajee. It’s a long, beautifully written tale about the history of the understanding of the human gene. Other than research, it’s been my reading material for the month. 

Speaking of research…
Timothy Noakes paper on how fatigue regulates exercise behavior is brilliant. So is the research paper on the U-shaped curve and its effect on chronic low back pain by Huech, et.al. The research challenged my bias and changed my narrative (which is why reading is good. It challenges perspective. In order: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3323922/pdf/fphys-03-00082.pdf

I had the pleasure of being interviewed by Pete Hitzeman for the Breaking Muscle podcast. Check it out here: http://breakingmuscle.com/fitness/the-endless-pursuit-of-mindful-movement

Assessment excerpt:

A fair amount of people initially come to see me for issues surrounding pain and discomfort. Often, it’s an area that has bothered them off and on for a long time, with doctors left shaking their heads, suggesting another cortisone shot or another round of physical therapy. These individuals are usually extremely active and frustrated they can’t resolve the issues on their own.

I am a fresh set of eyes in these situations. I don’t look, exactly, at how the muscles fire. I dislike hands on work, so I don’t do any manual muscle testing. Instead, I watch people move in a variety of ways. I watch their posture as they move in and out of positions, not because I think there is a perfect posture, but because transitions reveal habits.

Take the flexible dancer, for instance. I watch her move with ease and grace, as though she is barely grazing the floor with her feet. When her arms lift overhead, the motion is big, encompassing. Her ribs lift, her eyes lift, and energy fills the room. When she walks, everything is in front of her, preparing her for the next step. Nothing extends behind her. When asked to squat, her heels lift and her back arches as she moves into a deep plie.

To read the rest of the 1500 word article, click here: